Jenny Brandis' Handcrafts

Wool terms

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Apparel Wool All wool except carpet and pulled wool
Apron The largest fold encircling the neck of the merino sheep
Auction system The system of selling wool to the highest bidder
Backs Wool removed from the back section of the fleece
Badly bred a. Sheep that are not true to type
b. Wool displaying fault
Barrel Mid section of the body between the forequarters and hindquarters of the sheep
Belly wool Wool shorn from the belly of the sheep, usually often containing vegetation
Binning Sorting wool into similar lines
Break A thinning of the fibres in the staple which will break under strain - caused by sickness, lack of food, uater, sudden change in pasture or bad dipping process.
Brightness Term describing the colour of wool, indicating that it is free of discolouration
Brisket The area under the neck of the sheep betwen the forelegs and immediately in front of the belly
Britch wool Wool off the lower thigh of the sheep, normally lower quality than the bulk of the fleece
Broad An indication that the wool is coarse, or stronger than is usual for that type of wool
Broken Best of the skirtings
Bulk classing The lotting together by classing amounts mixed wools of varous owners in a woolstore for convenience of sale. The wool is sold under a common brand and each owner is credited with the weight of his wool in each bale or lot.
Bulky Deep thich stapled wool giving good bulk (volume) for the period of growth
Burry wool Wool containing burrs, seeds etc. Light burr in combing wools can be removed by mechanical action. Heavy burr in wools and any short types carrying bur or excessive vegetable matter (seeds etc) are carbonized.
Canary stain A bright yellow unscourable stain. Usually caused by moist humid conditions and fairly common in Western Australia and Queensland
Carbonizing The use of chemicals to remove vegetable matter. The usual agent used to convert vegetable matter to carbon is sulphuric acid
Carding The second mechanical process in manufacturing whereby the second wool is opened up to render it fit for further processing.
Carding wool Wool suitable for the wollen trade. It is shorter than combing wool
Carpet wool Course hairy wool, usually crossbred
Cast Term indicating low grade wool
Character Eveness of crimp or wave, denoting good breeding
Classer's registration number Registered number issued to individual wool classer, to be stencilled on bales of wool for identification of hte classer
Classing a. Wool: the grouping of fleeces according to type and quality, so that the lines will be even and can be sold to the best advantage
b. Sheep: the process of culling and selecting so that the flock will be of an even standard
Clean Basis Price of scoured wool minus charges and loss incurred in scouring
Clothing Wool approx. 1 and one half inches long; it must be reasonably fine. A speciality used in the wollen trade
Course Wool of larger fibre diameter and low count
Colour Refers to the degree of brightness in wool
Combing The process in the preparation of worsted yarn whereby the long fibres are laid parallel; the short fibres broken ends and vegetable particles are removed as noils.
Comeback Crossbred wool that has a count of 58s or finer
Condition 1. The amount of impurity present in greasy wool
2. The amount of moisture present in scoured wool or tops.
Cortex Main shaft or body of the wool fibre
Cotted or matted Term applied to wool which had become naturally felted on the sheeps back
Count Fibre diameter measurement
1. Woolen: the number of hanks of wool each 256 yrads long that can be spun from one pound of carded wool
2. Worsed: the number of hanks of yarn each 560 yards long that can be spun form one pound oftops. (the number indicates the fineness of the fibre)
Crimp The waves in a wool staple. The smaller and more even the crimp, the finer the fibre
Crutchings Wool from the britch and lower thighs
Crossbred sheep Sheep produced by crossing one pure bred of sheep with another
Crossbred wools All wools other than Merino, irrespective of whether from a pure breed or not
Cuticle 1. Outher layer of cells of wool fibre
2. Outer layer of skin
Cut per head Return of wool per head of sheep shorn


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